Natural Gas Liquids (NGLs)
Natural gas liquids (NGLs) are hydrocarbons—in the same family of molecules as natural gas and crude oil, composed exclusively of carbon and hydrogen. Ethane, propane, butane and natural gasoline are all NGLs. There are many uses for NGLs, spanning nearly all sectors of the economy. NGLs are used as inputs for petrochemical plants, burned for space heat and cooking, and blended into vehicle fuel.
Refined products include gasoline, diesel, fuel oil, jet fuel, and marine and bunker fuels.
Ethanol is a renewable alcohol fuel made from plant material, such as corn, sugar cane, or grasses. Using ethanol can reduce oil dependence and greenhouse gas emissions. Biodiesel is a renewable fuel that can be manufactured from vegetable oils, animal fats, or recycled restaurant grease for use in diesel vehicles. Biodiesel’s physical properties are similar to those of petroleum diesel, but it is a cleaner-burning alternative.
In the petroleum refining and petrochemical industries, the initialism BTX refers to mixtures of benzene, toluene, and xylene. Toluene is also a valuable petrochemical for use as a gasoline component.
Petroleum Coke, or “Petcoke” is a carbon product which is a by-product of the refining process. Petcoke has many industrial applications, such as acting as a fuel for cement kilns or electric power plants, and in the production of aluminum and other metals.
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) uses Renewable Identification Numbers (RINs) to track renewable transportation fuels. The RIN system allows the EPA to monitor compliance with the Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS), a federal program that requires transportation fuels sold in the United States to contain minimum volumes of renewable fuels.
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